Climate of Mumbai

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Mumbai
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
15
 
 
30
16
 
 
1
 
 
31
17
 
 
0.1
 
 
32
20
 
 
5.1
 
 
33
23
 
 
21
 
 
34
27
 
 
523
 
 
32
26
 
 
839
 
 
30
25
 
 
547
 
 
29
24
 
 
355
 
 
31
24
 
 
100
 
 
33
23
 
 
16
 
 
34
20
 
 
4.1
 
 
32
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: http://www.imd.gov.in/section/nhac/mean/Mumbai.htm Period: 1951–2000
(Indian Meteorological Department)

The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical, wet and dry climate. Mumbai's climate can be best described as moderately hot with high level of humidity. Its coastal nature and tropical location ensure temperatures do not fluctuate much throughout the year.

The mean average is 27.2 °C and average precipitation is 242.2 cm (95.35 inches).[1] The mean maximum average temperatures is about 32 °C (90 °F) in summer and 30 °C (86 °F) in winter, while the average minimums are 25 °C (77 °F) in summer and 18 °C (64 °F) in winter. Mumbai experiences three distinct seasons: 1. Winter (October to February) winter temperature 15 to 20°C Peak Winter Months – Dec to Mid Feb with temperature range 12–19 °C; 2. Summer (March to May) Avg temperature 30 to 27 °C; Peak Summer Months (Mid March to 1 June week), temperature shoots up to 30–40 °C with humidity being approx 70–80%. 3.Monsoon: (June to September). Peak monsoon months: July & August sometimes with winds and thunderstorms. Temperatures at 24–29 °C.

Climate data for Mumbai[edit]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
(98.6)
38.3
(100.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.6
(105.1)
39.7
(103.5)
37.2
(99.0)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
39.5
(103.1)
38.4
(101.1)
36.7
(98.1)
41.7
(107.1)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
35.8
(96.4)
35.1
(95.2)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.7
(89.1)
32.7
(90.9)
36.4
(97.5)
36.3
(97.3)
35.3
(95.5)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
31.5
(88.7)
32.7
(90.9)
33.8
(92.8)
32.2
(90.0)
30.0
(86.0)
29.7
(85.5)
30.6
(87.1)
33.0
(91.4)
33.5
(92.3)
32.2
(90.0)
31.6
(88.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.9
(76.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.1
(80.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.5
(86.9)
29.3
(84.7)
27.8
(82.0)
27.4
(81.3)
27.8
(82.0)
28.9
(84.0)
28.4
(83.1)
26.5
(79.7)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
20.2
(68.4)
22.7
(72.9)
25.0
(77.0)
27.1
(80.8)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.1
(77.2)
25.0
(77.0)
24.8
(76.6)
23.2
(73.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
17.1
(62.8)
20.0
(68.0)
22.9
(73.2)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
20.7
(69.3)
17.7
(63.9)
15.6
(60.1)
Record low °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
11.7
(53.1)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.7
(71.1)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68.0)
20.6
(69.1)
17.8
(64.0)
12.8
(55.0)
11.7
(53.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.9
(0.04)
0.2
(0.01)
0.4
(0.02)
0.5
(0.02)
20.2
(0.80)
530.2
(20.87)
711.6
(28.02)
493.8
(19.44)
330.4
(13.01)
78.4
(3.09)
14.9
(0.59)
2.6
(0.10)
2,184.1
(85.99)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.7 13.8 21.2 19.7 13.4 3.4 0.5 0.1 73.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 62 62 63 66 68 77 85 84 80 72 65 63 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 282.1 271.2 282.1 279.0 272.8 138.0 80.6 77.5 147.0 238.7 267.0 275.9 2,611.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.1 9.6 9.1 9.3 8.8 4.6 2.6 2.5 4.9 7.7 8.9 8.9 7.2
Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun 1971–2000)[2][3][4]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[5]
Climate data for Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, located in Santacruz) 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.4
(99.3)
39.6
(103.3)
41.7
(107.1)
42.2
(108.0)
41.0
(105.8)
37.1
(98.8)
34.8
(94.6)
33.5
(92.3)
36.4
(97.5)
37.9
(100.2)
37.4
(99.3)
39.8
(103.6)
42.2
(108.0)
Average high °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
31.3
(88.3)
32.8
(91.0)
33.2
(91.8)
33.6
(92.5)
32.4
(90.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.0
(86.0)
30.7
(87.3)
33.4
(92.1)
33.7
(92.7)
32.4
(90.3)
32.1
(89.8)
Average low °C (°F) 17.3
(63.1)
18.2
(64.8)
21.4
(70.5)
24.2
(75.6)
27.0
(80.6)
26.6
(79.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
23.8
(74.8)
21.3
(70.3)
18.5
(65.3)
22.8
(73.0)
Record low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.7
(54.9)
16.9
(62.4)
20.2
(68.4)
19.8
(67.6)
21.2
(70.2)
19.4
(66.9)
20.7
(69.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.3
(55.9)
10.6
(51.1)
7.4
(45.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.3
(0.01)
0.4
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
11.3
(0.44)
493.1
(19.41)
840.7
(33.10)
585.2
(23.04)
341.4
(13.44)
89.3
(3.52)
9.9
(0.39)
1.6
(0.06)
2,373.4
(93.44)
Average rainy days 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 13.6 22.9 21.5 13.9 3.4 0.6 0.2 77.0
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 49 47 51 59 65 74 81 81 76 63 54 51 63
Source: India Meteorological Department[6][7]

Sea temperature[edit]

Mumbai sea temperature[8]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 26 °C (79 °F)

Monthly breakdown of climate[edit]

The following is the monthly breakdown of the weather in Mumbai city.

January[edit]

January is the coolest month of the year for Mumbai with mean daily minimum being 16.4 °C and mean daily maximum being 30.1 °C.[9][10] The weather is generally mild and pleasant with daytime highs of around 27 °C and night-time lows of around 17 °C. The nightly lows may vary between 13 °C and 20 °C. Chilly northern winds during the day make the city seem cooler than it really is. Generally clear skies, with some smog – especially in the early morning – are the norm. The days are dry, the nights relatively humid. January is also associated with the deciduous trees in the city shedding their leaves. 26–27 January 2008 recorded a maximum temperature of 10.2 °C, which is the lowest recorded in 45 years. Mumbai's winter in 2012 had the minimum temperature 8.2 °C. The lowest recorded temperature is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 22 January 1962 which was the coldest day in Mumbai ever. Coastal areas are relatively cooler during the day, but they are warmer at night. Days may hover around 27 degrees Celsius, while nights are pleasant at around about 18 degrees Celsius. In January 2020, the temperature dipped to 11 degrees. The coastal areas were also quite cold, at around 13 degrees.

February[edit]

The fine January weather continues for the first fortnight of February. The mean daily minimum stays at 17.3 °C and mean daily maximum being 31.3 °C with some possibility of some unseasonal showers.[9] The day highs average 29 to 30 °C. The nights hover around 18 °C. By the second fortnight the humidity starts to increase and the day temperature might rise up to 32 °C. Smog increases. 6 February 2008 recorded a minimum temperature of 9.4 °C. Just two days later, on 8 February, the minimum temperature recorded was 8.5 °C, which was the lowest temperature Mumbai has seen since January 1962.[11] This was the coldest day in February ever.

March[edit]

The month of March sees a mean minimum temp of 20.6 °C and mean maximum temp of 32.7 °C.[9] The beginning of March sees night temperatures reach 15 °C. The days reach 30 to 33 °C.in early March, temperatures are very pleasant they are about 31 during the day and like 16 degrees at night but the heat soon picks up. During the transition from the dry to humid weather in mid March, the temperature might hit 38 to 40 °C. This high however, is due to hot dry winds from Gujarat. By mid March the temperatures may hit 37 °C, with the lows at 24 °C. Humidity is unbearable, and smog affects the city. New leaves sprout from deciduous trees. The all-time high day temperature for March was recorded in 2018 at 41.7 °C.[12]

April[edit]

The temperatures and humidity are still high. However, the cooling effect of the sea breezes makes its presence felt. The cool winds compensate for the heat. Which means the days high temperature stays around 35.1 °C and means daily lows are around 23.2 °C.[6]Plants are in full bloom in April. April is often hotter than May.

May[edit]

May is the hottest month of the year for Mumbai with the cool sea breezes providing some relief. This means daily maximum hovers around 34.5 °C and also means that the daily low is 29.1 °C.[9]

June[edit]

June marks the beginning of the monsoon period in Mumbai. The beginning of the month is characterized by a continuation of the summer with increased humidity. The official date for the monsoon to hit the city is 10 June.[13] This period is marked by thunderstorms and often windy conditions as the monsoon establishes itself over the city. Rainfall activity intensifies as the month goes on, leading into wettest month, July. The max and min mean daily temperatures are measured at 31.9 °C/26.6 °C.[9]

July[edit]

Waterlogging due to showers

In this month the city receives the maximum amount of rain. July and August are characterized by almost non stop rain and weeks of no sunshine. A continuous monsoon current covers the entire western coast of India during this period. Rainfall activity is less stormy and more constant with a relatively constant breeze from the West or South West. It is not uncommon for parts of the city to be waterlogged during periods of persistent heavy rain. This affects the city's public transport system often leading to long delays. During periods of severe precipitation, the city's commuter rail system is often suspended because of water logging and poor visibility.

The average maximum temperature for the month is around 29.8 °C with the average minimum at 25.5 °C.[9] The highest rainfall in the history of Mumbai was recorded on 26 July 2005. On this day, a record 944 mm rainfall fell over the city, causing large scale flooding, claiming several lives and causing large scale property damage.[14]

August[edit]

The weather in August is almost identical to July. Towards the later half of the month, rainfall activity tends to lessen. The coolest days of the monsoon season are often in August. The max temperature might drop to 29.3 °C during the day and 24.5 °C at night.[9]

September[edit]

In September the intensity of rainfall decreases. The monsoons officially end in the 3rd week of September. September has unsettled weather. The rainfall is short and light and is not continuous. The end of the monsoon, much like the beginning can feature heavy thunderstorms associated with the withdrawal of the monsoon current from the city and surrounding areas. The mean maximum daily temperatures reach 30.1 °C while daily mean minimum temperature stays at 24.0 °C.[9]

October[edit]

In the month of October the mean daily maximum stays at around 32.9 °C and mean daily minimum stays at 23.1 °C[9] making it hot during the days and cold during the nights.

November[edit]

The temperature continues to drop slowly in the month of November with the mean daily minimum staying at 20.5 °C and the mean daily maximum staying around 33.4 °C.[9] There are a few unseasonal showers.

December[edit]

The day highs hover around 32.4 °C. The nights in the beginning of December do not fall below 18 °C. By late December the day temperature ranges between 26 and 29 °C. The nights may dip to 12 °C in late December but average around 18.2 °C.[9] Humidity is low in December.

Weather monitoring stations in Mumbai[edit]

Mumbai has two weather monitoring stations, one at Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport and the other at Navy Nagar near Colaba towards the southern tip of Mumbai.

Record highest and lowest temperatures in Mumbai[edit]

The highest temperature ever recorded in Mumbai's history is 42.2 °C (108.0 °F), on 14 April 1952, while the lowest is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F), on 22 January 1962, both of which were recorded at the airport.[7]

Cyclones in Mumbai[edit]

Sitting on the coast, Mumbai is vulnerable to Cyclones, But mostly the Cyclones in the Arabian Sea turn to the Arabian Peninsula or Gujarat [15] But in recent years Mumbai is getting affected by more and more Cyclones [16] Cyclones affecting Mumbai include- 1618,[17] 1698,[17] 1702,[17] 1740,[17] 1742,[17] 1762,[17] 1799,[17] 1854,[17] 1882 Mumbai Cyclone (Which is believed to be a hoax), 1891[18] 1940 [19] 1948,[20] Cyclone Phyan,[21] Cyclone Ockhi[22] Cyclone Vayu[23] Cyclone Nisarga[19] Cyclone Tauktae[24]

The strongest Cyclone ever recorded to hit Mumbai is the 1948 Mumbai Cyclone, Which hit the island city on November 21, 1948, Gusts in Juhu reached 151 km/h, Torrential rains lashed the city reaching 5 inches in only 24 hours, There was flooding due to Heavy rains and power supply was disrupted as the city was battered for 20 hours, The Cyclone left 38 people dead and 47 missing, Local transport came to a standstill [19][25][26][27]

In Recent times, Cyclone Tauktae battered Mumbai, Reaching Gusts of 114 km/h and Heavy rains, The storm was catastrophic and flight operations at Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, halted for hours due to the cyclone[28][29]

Cyclone Nisarga made landfall in Alibag with Sustained winds of 140 km/h, Nisarga caused 6 deaths and 16 injuries in the state. Over 5,033 ha (12,440 acres) of land were damaged, Though Mumbai was mostly spared [30]

Cyclone Phyan also mostly spared Mumbai [31] 1948 Mumbai Cyclone was the Strongest and Deadliest to hit the Metropolis[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vega, Anthony J (2007). Climatology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-7637-3828-0.
  2. ^ "Station: Mumbai (Colaba) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 509–510. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Normals Data: Bombay/Colaba - India Latitude: 18.90°N Longitude: 72.82°E Height: 9 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Station: Mumbai (Santa Cruz) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 511–512. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Mumbai Climate and Weather Averages, India". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "India Metrological Dept: Mumbai". Archived from the original on 5 April 2008.
  10. ^ "Tata Institute of Fundamental Research- Mumbai:Climate". 8 August 2005.
  11. ^ "Mumbai records lowest temperature in 46 years".
  12. ^ Badri Chatterjee (29 March 2017). "Monday was second-hottest March day in Mumbai since 2014". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  13. ^ "South-west monsoon might not keep its usual June 10 date with Mumbai". The Times of India. Mumbai. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  14. ^ Fairclough, Chris (2007). Mumbai. London: Evans. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-237-53125-6.
  15. ^ DelhiJune 3, Prabhash K. Dutta New; June 3, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 17:02. "Nisarga, an exception: Why Mumbai does not get cyclones". India Today. Retrieved 21 June 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Mohanty, Shashwat. "How to protect Mumbai from future cyclones". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Scroll Staff. "'The bay was strewn with shipwrecks': A short history of Mumbai storms in the 18th, 19th centuries". Scroll.in. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  18. ^ "Nisarga, Mumbai's first cyclone since 1891, poised to make landfall". Deccan Chronicle. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d "Cyclone Nisarga is not the 1st Cyclone for Mumbai, lets see the 1940 & 1948 Cyclones". Tamil Nadu Weatherman. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  20. ^ MumbaiJune 3, Press Trust of India; June 3, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 13:59. "When 20-hour storm paralysed Bombay: Old-timers recall fury of cyclone which hit Mumbai in 1948". India Today. Retrieved 21 June 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Inamdar, Siddhesh (11 November 2009). "Cyclone Phyan lashes Gujarat, Maharashtra". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  22. ^ Desk, India com News (5 December 2017). "Cyclone Ockhi: Mumbai Records Highest 24-hour December Rain in a Decade". India News, Breaking News | India.com. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  23. ^ Deshpande, Tanvi (12 June 2019). "Cyclone Vayu: Mumbai experiences strong winds, moderate rain on Wednesday". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  24. ^ "Cyclone Tauktae batters Mumbai, airport closed temporarily". The Indian Express. 17 May 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  25. ^ "Cyclone Nisarga: When 1948 November storm left 38 dead and 47 missing in Bombay". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  26. ^ MumbaiJune 3, Press Trust of India; June 3, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 13:59. "When 20-hour storm paralysed Bombay: Old-timers recall fury of cyclone which hit Mumbai in 1948". India Today. Retrieved 21 June 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ "Cyclone hits Bombay; isolates city". Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957). 23 November 1948. p. 1. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  28. ^ "Mumbai sees record May rains due to Tauktae - OrissaPOST". Odisha News, Odisha Latest news, Odisha Daily - OrissaPOST. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  29. ^ "Tauktae effect: Mumbai records wettest day in May". The Indian Express. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  30. ^ "Cyclone Nisarga makes landfall; a lucky escape for Mumbai". Hindustan Times. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  31. ^ "Cyclone 'Phyan' crosses western coast, spares Mumbai". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2021.